Then "nothing" happened for tens of millions of years, Lamb said. At this point it splits into a set of smaller faults known as the Marlborough Fault System. The zone of uncertainty is doubled on the Hangingwall side of the fault to account for the increased fault deformation due to bending and warping of the upper plate. This is it: Franz Josef. Along the Alpine Fault the plates are not only moving past each other, they are also moving towards each other. Geologically, this is a high probability. READ MORE: * Alpine Fault spreads across South Island, researchers say * When, not if: Alpine fault could cause 8 metres of movement * Scientists digging into new part of South Island's Alpine Fault. The Alpine Fault runs from about the middle of the photo on the left obliquely along the valley in the centre of the image to Lake McKerrow. "You only know something is a foreshock once it is followed by something larger, but you can't tell that at the time," Orchiston says. The aftershock sequence could produce in the order of 100 magnitude 5 and above events if the main shock is magnitude 8. For example, during the 1929 Murchison earthquake a scarp over 4.5 metres high formed along part of the White Creek Fault.Repeated upward movement of land along a fault can create steep hillslopes and, over geological time, build mountains. No thumping helicopters, just one tourist coach parked on a side road, a few visitors puddle-jumping along the street hunkered under umbrellas, restaurant owners looking hopeful. Mar ch 201 1. The Alpine Fault ruptures in a massive earthquake every 300 years, on average, and the last big one was in 1717. The movement of … The overall movement follows a dextral strike-slip movement, which can be reconstructed by close observation of plutons in the area. We know far better the characteristics of the fault, and its likely behaviour when it does rupture. Then I climbed the steps to see him, he patiently explained once more the movement on the Alpine Fault, which had seemed so clear to him but which took others years more to see. GNS Science principal scientist Dr Kelvin Berryman doubts last Sunday's quake was on the Alpine Fault and says there are several small faults just west of it. The Alpine Fault, which runs up the spine of the South Island, has ruptured five times in the past 1100 years - producing an earthquake of between magnitude 7 and 8 each time. Large faults within the Earth's crust result from the action of plate tectonic forces, with the largest forming the boundaries between the plates, such as subduction zones or transform faults. The new theory about the Alpine Fault was a major shift in thinking and the researchers had needed to provide convincing arguments to get it published. There is also a chance the redistribution of stress may cause other faults around the central South Island to generate quakes of comparable magnitude to the largest aftershocks. 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The mountains are rising at 7 millimetres a year, but erosion wears them down at a … In March 2009, more than 60 of the world's best quake scientists were in Franz Josef to plan the fault-drilling project. It suggests that when the Alpine Fault moves, it most likely moves in large jumps of several metres and that this occurs in big earthquakes. Faulting in Alpine Tectonics Bernadette Bastian 319990 E-Mail: bernadette.bastian@rwth-aachen.de Abstract The Periadriatic lineament stretches from the Po-Basin in Italy to northern Slovenia. The researchers made the discovery by looking at geological maps together with studies of the direction of magnetisation in the rocks. Frankish says it is encouraging to see such interest in the natural world and in something which is going to affect so many. The differential movement along a transform fault agrees with the fault motions determined by seismic analyses. How about if Sunday's Big Bay quake had been followed by more quakes of similar or larger magnitude up and down that section of the fault? It has shaped the South Island in so many ways, she says. The Big Bay quake occurred where the Alpine Fault is changing its form as it gets closer to where it runs offshore and into the Puysegur subduction zone. With that once in every 291-year average, plus or minus 23 years, we appear to be on borrowed time. The surface rupture in Kaikōura was around 180km of fault – in this Alpine Fault event, we're talking about at least twice that length.". On the other hand there have been a number of A member of the audience asks about aftershocks. "It could well be that the event is further on in time. The Alpine Fault. Researchers have found each major earthquake results in an average of about 2m of uplift and up to 8m of horizontal slip along around 400km of the fault. The place which will be split apart by titanic forces when the Alpine Fault can't take the pressure anymore. A zone of uncertainty is shown in association with the mapping of the main rupture trace. This fault system consists of many different smaller parts. Movement on the Alpine Fault. The main problem is that the network is sparse around there and it is very hard to do any further analysis.". By that time the sea floor spreading had stopped and the land had begun to sink, resulting in characteristic marine deposits: calcareous and fossiliferous, with common limestone. That magnitude 7.8 quake set off many landslides, blocking rivers, forcing them to change course and alter valley landscapes. In you mind you play devil's advocate," Lamb said. No other community has such a vested interest in this slumbering monster, which does a bad job of hiding directly below the tourist mecca's main street, its petrol station, its police station and motels. It was certainly very close, but that is not unusual – there are a lot of smaller active faults in that region. This early scientific experiment shows us that the Alpine Fault does not move gradually – there has been no slow fault movement at this site. The uplift to the southeast of the fault is due to an … Trenching the Alpine Fault. Movement occurs during very large earthquakes approximately every 300 years, with the last one happening 300 years ago in 1717AD. He doesn't want to confine himself to the fault and instead talks about "multi-hazard cascades", using the November 2016 Kaikōura earthquake as the example. Spüren Sie das Alpine Erlebnis. Squeezed and heated over millions of years, these highly metamorphosed cataclasite rocks lie along the Alpine Fault at Rocky Point near Jacksons on State Highway 73. The movement on faults causes fractures and alignment of minerals in the adjacent rocks. Instead, residents can think more about preparedness and other possible scenarios. Stark geomorphological contrasts developed across the faults, reflecting differential glacial exploitation of the pre-glacial drainage pattern. A few wisps of chimney smoke hang low in the air. The lack of moderate or large-magnitude earthquakes on the Alpine fault since reliable record keeping started means that the seismic potential of the Alpine fault must be inferred from indirect observations and theoretical considerations. Below is a close up of the Alpine Fault. Several of New Zealand’s deadliest and most damaging earthquakes have occurred along hidden faults that ruptured but never reached the surface. The Alpine Fault crossing Calf Paddock at Marble Hill, near Springs Junction. The Alpine Fault crosses many West Coast townships, tourist areas, and key infrastructure so there is fear attached to the impact of a fault rupture in these areas." The business owners, Vickie and Gray Eatwell, realised the potential for the venture when giving permission to scientists to cross their land en route to the Gaunt Creek site. Introduction: Although the Alpine Fault has the potential to cause catastrophic damage on the West Coast, and elsewhere in the South Island, should there be major movement along all or part of its length, there has been no such movement in historical times. "It will be interesting to see what the reception is. After the Franz Josef meeting, Langridge and Orchiston tell Stuff the growing understanding of the fault and the coming quake means they do not have to focus so much on the geology. Smile Machines. Orchiston asks for a show of hands, and it turns out about half the audience are from Franz Josef. Such community engagement from the scientists is a far cry from just a decade ago. (File photo). But the point of this image is to tell you we are very late on in the seismic cycle of the Alpine Fault.". GNS Science earthquake geologist Robert Langridge has been studying why the Alpine Fault is so susceptible to earthquakes - it's since been discovered that it may be the world's fastest-moving known fault line. It forms a transform boundary between the Pacific Plate and the Indo-Australian Plate. strike-slip movement on the Alpine Fault. Close to 80 people and their wet-weather gear fill the theatre, less than 100m from the lump in the road that looks like a whale lurking just below the surface. Introduction: Although the Alpine Fault has the potential to cause catastrophic damage on the West Coast, and elsewhere in the South Island, should there be major movement along all or part of its length, there has been no such movement in historical times. The horizontal movement of this fault is about 30 meters per 100 years, which by global standards is very fast! The Alpine Fault last got seriously testy in 1717 or thereabouts and before that, in descending order, 1620, 1430 and 1100. "You spend a lot of time checking. Alpine Fault movement The Alpine Fault is called a strike slip or transform fault. The Alpine Fault in northern Fiordland with sites studied by Kelvin Berryman and Ursula Cochran, of GNS Science. You only need to look at the slips on the range front around Whataroa and Harihari from storms earlier this year to get a sense of what an Alpine Fault quake will do to unstable slopes and rivers, he says. Alpine Fault. Locally, a small vertical component of up-to-the-west movement is observed. It is the line along which the Australian and Pacific tectonic plates are being pushed together. Scientists and engineers drilled into the fault several years ago and are still analysing what they found. Victoria University of Wellington earthquake scientist Professor Rupert Sutherland says the quake did not have slip or vertical movements "consistent with surface observations of the Alpine Fault near there". In the past 25 million years, the two sides of the South Island have shifted more than 700 kilometres relative to each other along the Alpine Fault. The Alpine Fault then runs the length of the South Island just west of the Southern Alps to near Lewis Pass in the central northern section of the island. You have the Alpine Fault breaking up this fragment of continent that split away from Gondwana," Lamb said. That is 250km more than previously thought. The Alpine Fault moves about 30m sideways per 1,000 years and is the fastest moving fault in the world. The fault runs northeast from the northern side of the entrance to Milford Sound, along the western side of the Southern Alps for about 800 kilometres before morphing into the Marlborough fault system. Better prepared a role in causing ruptures in a trench across the faults, reflecting differential glacial exploitation of Fault... 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