But very soon Curio stepped in, who carried you off from your public trade, and, as if he had bestowed a matron’s robe upon you, settled you in a steady and durable wedlock. who was there who did not grieve that he was so late in finding out how worthless a man he had been following? He is become economical. and how great a man might you have been, if you had been able to preserve the inclination you displayed that day;—we should still have peace which was made then by the pledge of a hostage, a boy of noble birth, the grandson of Marcus Bambalio. Although you are devoid of all sense and all feeling,—as in truth you are,—still you are acquainted with yourself, and with your trophies, and with your friends. one in which, stupid and ignorant as you are, still you can see nothing which is not painful to you. How often has his father turned you out of his house? 61XXV. Phil. For you did not say that you had been observing the heavens, and indeed you do not say so this day. Set before you the joy of the senate and people of Rome; compare it with this infamous market held by you and by your friends; and then you will understand how great is the difference between praise and profit. An decertare mecum voluit contentione dicendi? etenim est pietatis plena defensio. Therefore, while the rest of the men of consular rank were going backwards and forwards to you, I adhered to my opinion, nor did I see you at all that day, or the next; nor did I think it possible for an alliance between virtuous citizens and a most unprincipled enemy to be made, so as to last, by any treaty or engagement whatever. Cicero claims it was Antony’s finest hour — and if he had continued to act in the spirit in which negotiations were conducted, a lasting peace and much fame would have ensued. 115XLV. But who was ever found before, except Publius Clodius, to find fault with my consulship? Well, this concerned the common interests of the whole party. His abject failure to articulate himself in supple and muscular speech stands in dismal contrast to the heights of eloquence achieved by his grandfather — Antony is the sad offspring of a once great family. Cicero translated by C. D. Yonge « Cic. Phil. Have I been deceived? What am I to think? what had you heard? How can you prove it in that manner? Would you then have slain the man whom the conqueror himself, who conferred on you, as you used to boast, the chief rank among all his robbers, had desired to be safe, and had enjoined to go to Italy? 72At first you answered fiercely enough; and that I may not appear prejudiced against you in every particular, you used a tolerably just and reasonable argument. Grant that you could have slain him, is not this, O conscript fathers, such a kindness as is done by banditti, who are contented with being able to boast that they have granted their lives to all those men whose lives they have not taken? In § 47 Cicero announced that he intends to treat the portion of Antony’s biography that falls in-between his depravities as a teenager and the role he played in the civil war cursorily:ad haec enim quae in civili bello, in maximis rei publicae miseriis fecit, et ad ea quae cotidie facit, festinat animus.Barely three paragraphs later, we reach this moment. In the tumultuous aftermath of Caesar’s death, Cicero and Mark Antony found themselves on opposing sides of an increasingly bitter and dangerous battle for control. sumpsisti virilem, quam statim muliebrem togam reddidisti. You came from Gaul to stand for the quæstorship. However, do you decide on your conduct. 15Why? Charybdis, do I say? This, indeed, is an act of generosity; for what could be a more fertile or richer subject for me, than to have to speak in defence of myself, and against Antonius? Identify and explain the mood ofinspiciamus. I imagine that terror and arms got the mastery. Yet for a long time they have received little scholarly attention. But was it possible for you to stand for the augurship at a time when Curio was not in Italy? Antony’s role in all of this was marginal at best, but Cicero had his reasons for dwelling on the affair. It extends beyond detailed linguistic analysis to encourage critical engagement with Cicero, his oratory, the politics of late-republican Rome, and the transhistorical import of Cicero’s politics of verbal (and physical) violence. The previous paragraph ended on the dictum that only a life in harmony with the wider civic community guarantees personal safety. 82And just recollect the whole of his conduct during his consulship from that day up to the ides of March. I suppose you said that he was absent when the prosecution was instituted against him; that the cause was decided without his having been heard in his defence; that there was not by a law any judicial proceeding established with reference to gambling; that he had been put down by violence or by arms; or lastly, as was said in the case of your uncle, that the tribunal had been bribed with money. 10However, what was the object of your addressing these entreaties to me, if the man for whom you were entreating was already restored by a law of Cæsar’s? But since we wish to show a regard for the veterans, although the cause of the soldiers is very different from yours; they followed their chief; you went to seek for a leader; still, (that I may not give you any pretence for stirring up odium against me among them,) I will say nothing of the nature of the war. For I have received more than twenty millions of sesterces in inheritances. 39But what that extraordinary and almost godlike man thought of me is known to those men who pursued him to Paphos from the battle of Pharsalia. 20And yet you are a little to be blamed for your failure in that instance, too. But how great and how barbaric a procession is yours! Let him do what he pleases, provided he is not sick, and does not behave as he did in the Minucian colonnade. VII. 22Although that inquiry into the death of Publius Clodius was not instituted with any great wisdom. If you ask my opinion, I wish he had not been there. And how was it, that when you owed forty millions of sesterces on the fifteenth of March, you had ceased to owe them by the first of April? 17In truth, when wicked men, being compelled by the revelations of the accomplices, by their own handwriting, and by what I may almost call the voices of their letters, were confessing that they had planned the parricidal destruction of their country, and that they had agreed to burn the city, to massacre the citizens, to devastate Italy, to destroy the republic; who could have existed without being roused to defend the common safety? The paragraph thus also brings to a close the competition in eloquence that runs throughoutPhilippic2 from § 2 onwards. But you are so senseless that throughout the whole of your speech you were at variance with yourself; so that you said things which had not only no coherence with each other, but which were most inconsistent with and contradictory to one another; so that there was not so much opposition between you and me as there was between you and yourself. Remove for a while those swords which we see around us. Even then you do not follow him. 35That exploit required a man. In a very full senate held on the first of January, while your uncle was present, you dared to say that this was your reason for hatred of Dolabella, that you had ascertained that he had committed adultery with your cousin and your wife. Besides, these fourteen speeches are an important testimony to the critical final phase of the Roman Republic. At that time he had selected for himself to live in, not the house which he now dishonours, but that of Marcus Piso. The fortune of the Roman people saved us from that day. called also the fourth philippic. . But, since the republic has been now deprived of those men whom I have named, many and illustrious as they were, let us come to the living, since two of the men of consular rank are still left to us: Lucius Cotta, a man of the greatest genius and the most consummate prudence, proposed a supplication in my honour for those very actions with which you find fault, in the most complimentary language, and those very men of consular rank whom I have named, and the whole senate, adopted his proposal; an honour which has never been paid to any one else in the garb of peace from the foundation of the city to my time. For the king himself, of his own accord, without waiting for any of Cæsar’s memoranda, the moment that he heard of his death, recovered his own rights by his own courage and energy. 46And at that time what misery of that most flourishing family did I allay, or rather did I remove! Cicero composed his incendiary Philippics only a few months after Rome was rocked by the brutal assassination of Julius Caesar. In the first place, the children of Cnæus Pompeius sought to be restored to their country. I was for providing for the safety of the citizens in the first place, in order that we might be able to consult their dignity afterwards. 3 | About This Work ». In republican Rome, founding a new colony was a complex political act that followed a detailed political and religious script.61In Rome itself, this included a senatorial decree, the passing of a law by a legislative assembly, the election of colonial commissioners, the enlistment of the colonists, and the official departure to the settlement location (deductio). 14With what eloquence, with what firm wisdom, with what a weight of authority did Lucius Cæsar, your uncle, pronounce his opinion against the husband of his own sister, your stepfather. In whose honour? why was the number of their lieutenants augmented? At the same time also, I beg this of you; that if you have been acquainted with my moderation and modesty throughout my whole life, and especially as a speaker, you will not, when to-day I answer this man in the spirit in which he has attacked me, think that I have forgotten my usual character. 67What Charybdis was ever so voracious? what was the first of June that you waited for? Must one apply a torch to you to waken you while you are sleeping over such an important affair? 79I do not make any complaint against Dolabella, who was at that time acting under compulsion, and was cajoled and deceived. 112XLIV. A bond for ten millions of sesterces was entered into in the women’s apartment, (where many things have been sold, and are still being sold,) by his ambassadors, well-meaning men, but timid and inexperienced in business, without my advice or that of the rest of the hereditary friends of the monarch. Was there any one to whom he was more attached? Was it for this that Lucius Tarquinius was driven out; that Spurius Cassius, and Spurius Mælius, and Marcus Manlius were slain; that many years afterwards a king might be established at Rome by Marcus Antonius, though the bare idea was impiety? As long as the race of men, as long as the name of the Roman people shall exist, (and that, unless it is prevented from being so by your means, will be everlasting,) so long will that most mischievous interposition of your veto be spoken of. Quis vero audivit umquam — nullius autem salus curae pluribus fuit — de fortunis Varronis rem ullam... Cicero continues to lambast Antony for defiling Varro’s domicile of learning, contrasting Varro’s intellectual achievements across all areas of culture with Antony’s obscene indulgence in orgies of booze and sex. No one was admitted. Although even at that time, when they thought you an excellent man, though I indeed differed from that opinion, you behaved with the greatest wickedness while presiding at the funeral of the tyrant, if that ought to be called a funeral. But a man whom you never even saw, Lucius Rubrius, of Casinum, made you his heir. You wise and considerate man, what do you say to this? Can you, when you have one of the chiefs of the senate, a citizen of singular virtue, so nearly related to you, abstain from ever consulting him on the affairs of the republic, and consult men who have no property whatever of their own, and are draining yours? And what a life is it, day and night to be fearing danger from one’s own people! Although formerly these lands of Campania and Leontini were considered part of the patrimony of the Roman people, and were productive of great revenue, and very fertile. You, who fancied yourself a master of the horse, when you were standing for, or I should rather say begging for the consulship for the ensuing year, ran in Gallic slippers and a barbarian mantle about the municipal towns and colonies of Gaul, from which we used to demand the consulship when the consulship was stood for and not begged for. The alliteratedcertatim … curretur(an impersonal passive in the future: ‘there will be an emulous onrush to... Cicero clinches the account with his public service — and a twin focus on liberty and death. Do you never think on these things? Thrice did Cæsar fight against his fellow-citizens; in Thessaly, in Africa, and in Spain. But this single day, this very day that now is, this very moment while I am speaking, defend your conduct during this very moment, if you can. Then, when you had recruited your resources again by his largesses and your own robberies, (if, indeed, a person can be said to recruit, who only acquires something which he may immediately squander,) you hastened, being again a beggar, to the tribuneship, in order that in that magistracy you might, if possible, behave like your friend. While he was alive he deprived him of all these things; now that he is dead, he gives them back again. Do you love him even now that he is dead? Indeed, if leaders were wanted for the purpose of delivering the country, what need was there of my instigating the Bruti, one of whom saw every day in his house the image of Lucius Brutus, and the other saw also the image of Ahala? 49XX. 58XXIV. And see, now, how gratuitously wicked he was even in accomplishing his wickedness. As in § 43, he stresses that he has to leave out a lot. You say that you sent a man to Alexandria to buy it of Cæsar. why should he do so, any more than I should claim it of him? 80And what things were they which he said in his anger, O ye good gods! 75XXX. Philippic 2 was a weapon in that war. Still I mention the particulars of his conduct, although my speech cannot possibly come up to your own personal knowledge. While you were all looking on, documents were fixed up over the whole Capitol, and exemptions were being sold, not merely to individuals, but to entire states. 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