Graphic by Hailey Shanovich, adapted from CFIA 2016 and USDA-APHIS 2018. There is building evidence for Japanese beetles’ selectivity among varieties documented in soybean (Chandrasena et al. Japanese beetles love roses, grapes, lindens, sassafras, Japanese maple, and purple-leaf plums, so these plants should be avoided if Japanese beetle … Other factors that influence larval densities include moisture, soil organic matter and tillage practices (Hammond and Stinner 1987, Allsopp 1992, Dalthorp et al. Chlorpyrifos is under consideration to be banned in the United States (EPA 2018) and trichlorfon is restricted to nonfood uses (EPA 1997). Several studies have shown Heterorhabditis Poinar spp. A. Gervais, K. Buhl, and D. Stone. Japanese beetle look-alikes, including (a) six-spotted tiger beetle (David Cappaert, Michigan State University,; (b) dogbane beetle (David Cappaert, Michigan State University,; (c) false Japanese beetle (Erin Hodgson); (d) northern masked chafer (Mike Reding and Betsy Anderson, USDA-ARS,; (e) May beetle (Emmy Engasser, USDA-APHIS PPQ,; (f) shiny leaf chafer (Whitney Cranshaw, Colorado State University); and (g) June beetle (Steven Katovich, USDA Forest Service, 2001). Régnière, J., R. L. Rabb, and R. E. Stinner. Ladd, T. L., Jr., J. D. Warthen Jr., and M. G. Klein. 2001) originally selected for Mexican bean beetle, Epilachna varivestis Mulsant (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), resistance (Hammond and Cooper 1989). As discussed earlier, Japanese beetle populations in an area can be influenced by several factors, one of them being ground cover. This was a no till bed, but clover came up and I nestled plants in the the clover. Since its inception in 1939 the annual trapping program appears to have been quite effective in detecting infestations. Halofenozide has been shown to have varying efficacy to different scarab species and different life stages (Cowles and Villani 1996) but is as effective as imidacloprid (Mannion et al. 2013, Dewerff et al. Least favored does not mean that Japanese beetles will not feed on them, just that they don't tend to feed as much. cultivars to defoliation by the Japanese beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), Effects of Japanese beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) and silk clipping in field corn. In addition, Japanese beetles tend to aggregate and feed most in the upper canopy of plants, defoliating them from the top down (Rowe and Potter 1996). Once established, Japanese beetles can be a difficult and expensive insect pest to control, estimated at approximately $450 million each year in the United States for turfgrass management alone (USDA-NASS 2016). Japanese Beetle destructively eat leaves in a very lace like pattern. However, it has been noted the majority of Japanese beetle defoliation of soybeans occurs during the reproductive stages of plant development (Hammond 1994). Feeding-induced plant volatiles, not female sex pheromones, are thought to attract more beetles to the feeding aggregations on plants (Ladd 1970; Loughrin et al. Foliar spraying on your gardens. This pest feeds on several tree species, vegetable plants, flowers and leaves. 2017a, Varenhorst and Wagner 2017b, Dewerff et al. Graphic by Erin Hodgson. Currently, soil-applied biological products are still very expensive per acre for treatment for grubs and are not recommended for growers to control Japanese beetle adult populations within or near crop fields. Department of Entomology, University of Minnesota, Saint Paul, MN. Soybeans contain cysteine protease inhibitors (CPI) that work against gut cysteine proteases of beetles, which help them digest soybean foliage. Eggs typically hatch within 10 to 14 d, and development of the first and second instars requires 2 to 3 wk and 1 wk, respectively, and larvae reach the third instar in autumn (Fleming 1976). Plants with higher amounts of sugar have been found to have greater damage from Japanese beetles than those with lower sugar concentrations (Ladd 1986, Patton et al. ... to the lawn for getting rid of Japanese beetle and Asiatic garden beetle grubs. Upon hatching, the wasp larva feeds externally, imbibing internal fluids by piercing the grub’s cuticle. 2006). Unfortunately, my edible landscape — built over time using shortcut permaculture principles — has many plants that Japanese beetles find utterly irresistible. Shading effects of susceptibility of Rosa spp. Additionally, Dalthorp et al. Once a host is found, the wasp stings the grub, temporarily paralyzing it while she lays a single egg between the last thoracic segment and the first abdominal segment. Neem is typically used in organic systems for pest management. Host-plant resistance has been recently discovered for the management of Japanese beetle in soybean. Many studies show soybeans are able to lose substantial amounts of foliage before a yield reduction occurs (Gould 1963, Todd and Morgan 1972, Turnipseed 1972), and all studies suggest the effect of defoliation depends on the growth stage of the plant (Hammond 1994). As larvae, Japanese beetles are destructive to turfgrass roots, including lawns, golf courses, and athletic fields (Potter 1998, Vittum et al. However, one study allowed caterpillars and Japanese beetle adults to defoliate soybean for 24 h (50–80% defoliation over this time) and showed an increase in water loss, up to 90%, from defoliation with no effect on photosynthesis (Aldea et al. (1978) found that extracts applied to leaves resulted in only slight removal of tissue by the Japanese beetle, even at the lowest concentrations, and had evidence of residual repellency for several days. Newly-hatched larvae, or first instars, are up to 1/8 inch (3 mm) long, while fully-grown larvae, or third instars, are about 13/16 inches (30 mm) long (Isaacs et al. Search for other works by this author on: Department of Entomology, Iowa State University, Ames, IA, Host suitability and diet mixing influence activities of detoxification enzymes in adult Japanese beetles, Further evidence for chlorpyrifos tolerance and partial resistance by the Japanese Beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), Indirect effects of insect herbivory on leaf gas exchange in soybean, Effect of soil moisture and soil texture on oviposition by Japanese beetle and rose chafer (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), Water-stable aggregates and organic matter fractions in conventional- and no-tillage soils, Host-plant selection by phytophagous insects, Dispersal of the Japanese beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) in strip-cropped soybean agroecosystems, Missouri pest management guide: corn, cotton, grain sorghum, rice, soybean, winter wheat, Parasitoids and pathogens of Japanese beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) in Southern Michigan, Appendix 1: Regulatory status of areas in Canada and the United States for Japanese beetle (, An assessment of Japanese beetle defoliation on aphid-resistant and aphid-susceptible soybean lines, Susceptibility of Japanese beetle, oriental beetle, and European chafer (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) to halofenozide, an insect growth regulator, Effect of silk feeding by western corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) on yield and quality of inbred corn in seed corn production fields, Estimation of local mean population densities of Japanese beetle grubs (Scarabaeidae: Coleoptera), Pest Management in Wisconsin Field Crops A3646, University of Wisconsin Cooperate Extension Publishing, Madison, WI, Pest management in Wisconsin field crops A3646, (EMPPO) European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. It is C-shaped and has a brown head and a cream-colored body. Fall soil sampling for grubs may be used to predict spring infestations of larvae (Jordan et al. Management of Japanese beetle is complex. Therefore, when estimating defoliation, the entire canopy, not just upper or injured leaves, must be considered (Ohnesorg and Hunt 2015). Defoliation by Japanese beetle in soybean can be field-wide but is typically concentrated along field edges due to their tendency to aggregate near feeding-induced volatiles, response to habitat changes and wind direction (Hammond 1994; Loughrin et al. Also, since adults are highly mobile, reinfestations are common after insecticide applications (Hadley 1940) and should not be assumed to be resistant to insecticides. It has been observed that Japanese beetle feeding aggregations are initiated by ‘pioneer’ females feeding on the leaves, with males joining later in the process, leading to later gregarious mating and feeding, causing damage to plants (Kowles and Switzer 2011). The significance of Japanese beetle is increasing throughout more recently infested areas. 1988) influence the number of eggs laid by females in crop fields, with higher densities in reduced-tillage systems (Hammond and Stinner 1987), and determine the proximity of the oviposition site to the feeding site (Régnière et al. It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide, This PDF is available to Subscribers Only. Petty, B. M., D. T. Johnson, and D. C. Steinkraus. The following list of the Japanese beetle's most‑ and least‑favored woody plants may be useful to you if you are designing new landscapes. This interaction between silk clipping and drought is supported by Culy et al. 1983). 1992), low organic matter content (Dalthorp et al. Be warned though, even plants that don’t attract Japanese beetles can occasionally suffer from minor Japanese beetle damage. During its last instar, the wasp consumes all edible parts of the beetle’s cuticle and spins a cocoon to overwinter in. Hammond and Stinner (1987) found soil-applied insecticide efficacy did not vary by tillage system. Many insecticides are labeled to manage larval and adult Japanese beetle in soybean (Krupke et al. Therefore, Japanese beetle feeding tends to occur on full-sun plants with a top–down feeding pattern (Rowe and Potter 1996, 2000; Zavala et al. 1997). Throughout their adult lifespan of 4 to 6 wk, females will continually alternate between feeding, mating and ovipositing eggs. Despite their long-term association with the Japanese beetle in the northeast, I. aldrichi has not completely synchronized with its host’s life cycle and often emerges prior to the beetle, but still offers a parasitism rate of 20% or more in Japanese beetle populations in the United States (Klein 1998). Following the initial oviposition, females fly to host plants and begin feeding (Barrows and Gordh 1978). However, studies have shown high variability in the effectiveness of defoliator-resistant varieties (Hammond et al. 2008). Japanese beetle is native to northern Japan (Fleming 1976), where it is considered a minor agricultural pest due to the combination of coevolved natural enemies and unsuitable terrain for larval development (Clausen et al. Despite its extreme generalist feeding, Japanese beetle shows distinct preferences for certain plant species, whereas other plant species are rarely or never fed upon. It has a stronger calling card scent than a trail of ants on spilled lemonade. Current gaps in knowledge that could further assist corn and soybean management decisions for Japanese beetle include understanding how crop phenology drives movement of adults and how females make host-plant selection decisions within a crop field. However, females have been observed to oviposit more in no-till or reduced-tillage systems (Hammond and Stinner 1987) which are usually associated with higher soil organic matter content (Beare et al. At least this time it was wild clover instead of my althea and hollyhocks. Grub-damaged turf pulls up easily from the soil, like a loose carpet. This entails applying an insecticide to your landscape plants that the beetles are known to favor. They indicated this is likely due to the presence of azadirachtin, a juvenile hormone mimic, in the extracts. 2005). 2009). The current lure formulation for Japanese beetle traps is a mixture of a food-type volatile blend and the synthetic female sex pheromone (japonilure) that proves highly attractive to the species (Ladd and McGovern 1980). A number of biological control agents have been studied for Japanese beetle adults and larvae, particularly in turfgrass systems, including nematodes, parasitoid wasps, and bacterial organisms, since their introduction into the United States. Milky spore powder is still commercially available today, largely used by homeowners and gardeners. Although the adults can feed on corn leaves, the main concern is the clipping of silks (Fig. The females will fly to an area of turf grass and lay an average of three eggs a few inches into the soil. Younger leaves contain higher concentrations of CPI; however, elevated CO2 levels in the atmosphere seem to reduce CPI concentrations, allowing beetles to feed more on younger foliage that presumably contributes more to yield (Zavala et al. Map of Japanese beetle distribution in the United States as of 2018 and Canada as of 2016. 2c). The pupal stage lasts 7 to 17 d and the newly-molted adults remain in the soil for another 2 to 14 d prior to emergence, which is also highly dependent on soil temperature (Fleming 1976, Régnière et al. 7). Follow the scouting guideline in Fig. During the same year three additional adults were captured at Yarmouth and three at Lacolle in Southern Quebec. This will be important to determine whether border treatment will suffice or if whole-field treatment is warranted (Sara et al. They lay eggs in the soil during June, which develop into tiny white grubs with brown heads and six legs that are up to ¾ inch in length. Key differences in scouting and treatment between corn and soybean exist that are outlined below. 1977, Ishida and Leal 2008). Carbaryl did not reduce Japanese beetle populations, and the combination of imidacloprid and carbaryl was not better than imidacloprid alone (Mannion et al. Also, if Japanese beetle pressure is high and pollination is incomplete, consider whether reinfestations are severe enough to warrant additional insecticide applications. In addition, it is not recommended to treat for grubs in nearby grassy areas or landscape corridors to control populations within crop fields as adults can fly in from neighboring nontreated areas (Potter et al. 1992). Japanese beetles are an invasive species. This information could help predict where damage will be most severe by indicating where beetle aggregations will form within a field and on what cultivars. Entomopathogenic nematodes are perhaps the most studied biological control agent for Japanese beetle. Photos by Erin Hodgson. Japanese beetle traps contain a pheromone that attracts both male and female beetles. In corn, one carbamate (carbaryl) product is labeled, and neonicotinoid and pyrethroid + neonicotinoid products are available for soybean (Dewerff et al. Aldea, M., J. G. Hamilton, J. P. Resti, A. R. Zangerl, M. R. Berenbaum, and E. H. DeLucia. Patton, C. A., T. G. Ranney, J. D. Burton, and J. F. Walgenbach. Therefore, the adult female’s oviposition site selection is crucial for larval survival and determining subsequent populations, which can lead to patchy distributions with mean population densities low in some areas and high in others throughout a given landscape (Dalthorp et al. Image of flower, nature, beetle - 37510929 Their feeding damage is usually easy to distinguish from other leaf feeding insects because they do not eat the veins, leaving lacy-looking leaves. 2019a). Imidacloprid was also tested with foliar applications of carbaryl to test the efficacy of combined treatments. This could include distribution, frequency of movement, and duration of feeding by an individual beetle on a single plant. 1999) are preferred by females for oviposition, although eggs may also be laid within crop fields, with soybean seemingly preferred to corn (Gould 1963, Hammond 1994, Edwards 1999). Shapiro-Ilan, D. I., D. H. Gouge, and A. M. Koppenhöfer. In soybean, for example, Japanese beetle has become an important member of the guild of defoliating pests (Hammond 1994, Steffey 2015, Hurley and Mitchell 2016). 2002). This may also determine resistance in closely-related plants. They will enter the soil a dozen or more times, laying up to 60 individual eggs (Fleming 1972). I. aldrichi was also released in the Midwest, including southern Minnesota and southern Michigan for the first time in 1998 to 1999 respectively (Cappaert and Smitley 2002, Luhman 2008). A foliar insecticide is warranted if three conditions are met: three or more beetles per ear, silks have been clipped to less than ½ inch (12.7 mm), and pollination is less than 50% complete (Edwards 1999, Steckel et al. Oviposition cues, therefore, are detected by females on the surface as well as within the soil, providing further indication of habitat suitability (Szendrei and Isaacs 2005, 2006; Wood et al. Clover is a perennial broadleaf weed that often thrives in lawns that do not get enough fertilizer. Karin Lewis (Bookatz) has uploaded 2118 photos to Flickr. (Sapindales: Sapindaceae) (Seagraves et al. Tumlinson, J. H., M. G. Klein, R. E. Doolittle, T. L. Ladd, and A. T. Proveaux. Specific secondary plant defense compounds have been identified as feeding deterrents for the Japanese beetle in tree fruit and are valuable for the development of cultivars but have not yet been identified or explored in field crops (Fulcher et al. 2019a). 1995, 1996a, 1996b, 1997, 1998). In addition, lower grub densities are associated with high organic matter content in the soil (Dalthorp et al. Treatment programs h… Clausen, C. P., J. L. King, and C. Teranishi. 2000, Potter and Held 2002). 2012), but sampling may be limited in its practicality, because high dispersal capabilities of adults make it difficult to predict expected populations in a given area (Fleming 1972, Potter et al. 5). Pyrethroid, pyrethroid + diamide, and pyrethroid + organophosphate products are among the choices for both corn and soybean. Chandrasena, D., C. DiFonzo, and D. Wang. It can be applied to the soil similar to granular insecticides and apparently has about the same effectiveness as insecticides (USDA-APHIS 2015). Ames, IA 50011-2031 In contrast, the inconspicuous soil-dwelling larvae, which feed on roots of short grass species, are not considered as much of a concern as the adults in crops (Hammond 1994, Edwards 1999). Another option is to grow Japanese beetle resistant plants. They prefer flowers like dill, fennel, sweet clover, gomphrena and mint. Adult Japanese beetle. Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica Newman, has become a significant insect pest of turfgrass and ornamental, horticultural and agricultural plants in the eastern United States (Potter and Held 2002). As stated earlier, adult Japanese beetles tend to exhibit top–down feeding, moving from younger to older leaves on a plant. Japanese Beetles feed on the leaves, fruit, and flowers of hundreds of plant species. Larvae are relatively immobile in the soil; therefore, the level of damage depends on their location relative to the plant. 2015, Dewerff et al. We have two methods of controlling Japanese Beetles. Adults may be confused with other species of beetles that can co-occur on many of their host plants (EMPPO 2006; Fig. They chew grass roots, causing the turf to brown and die. Tiphia vernalis Rohwer was introduced to the United States from Asia in 1915 to control the Japanese beetle and is currently established across much of the pest’s Eastern range, including Ohio, North Carolina, and Tennessee, but as of 2000 was absent in Michigan (Mahr 1999, Cappaert and Smitley 2002, Rogers and Potter 2003). (2012) found a preference for adult Japanese beetles to feed on soybean varieties that contain two resistance genes (rag1b + rag3) for soybean aphid. 2019b) and corn (Krupke et al. Factors affecting commercial success: case studies in cotton, turf and citrus, Characters useful in distinguishing larvae of, United States Department of Agriculture Department Circular 363. You can as well just add clover seeds to your existing lawn. 2009) along with high soil moisture, moderate soil texture (Allsopp et al. Japanese beetle injury to corn, including (a) early feeding and (b) severe silk clipping. 2001, Tigreros and Switzer 2009, Kowles and Switzer 2011). 2012). 2b). In the United States, Japanese beetle was first found in 1916 at a nursery near Riverton, New Jersey and is speculated to have arrived via imported rhizomes of Japanese iris, Iris ensata Thunb. Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. 1993). Adults feed mainly on leaves of plants, eating between the veins and leaving a characteristic skeletonized appearance. 1995). Vittum, P. J., M. G. Villani, and H. Tashiro. 2013); and birch, Betula spp. 2010). Japanese beetle adults are difficult to control and one way to limit the impact of adult beetle defoliation may be to select plants that the Japanese beetles tend to avoid. Hammond, R. B., P. Bierman, E. Levine, and R. L. Cooper. Loughrin, J. H., D. A. Potter, T. R. Hamilton-Kemp, and M. E. Byers. Japanese Beetle Management. Additionally, Btj, a form of Bacillus thuringiensis, is highly toxic to Japanese beetle larvae, and was isolated from Japanese soils (Potter and Held 2002). Chandrasena et al. 3). P. japonica originates from north-eastern Asia where it is native in northern Japan and in the far east of Russia (Fleming, 1972a).Fleming’s (1972a) report of P. japonica in China and Korea, probably referred to closely-related species, but not the Japanese beetle (Ping, 1988; Reed et al., 1990).. 1983). (Fagales: Betulaceae) (Gu et al. Like many beneficial insects, adult tachinid flies feed on nectar. 1997). In addition, it is important to consider the risk of a secondary pest outbreak if spraying for Japanese beetle adults. The United States is the world’s top producer of both corn, Zea mays L. (Poales: Poaceae) and soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merr. 2013). Due to their large size, rigid body, and invasive pest status, biological control of Japanese beetle adults is difficult. Unlike with other invasive pests, natural enemies such as spiders, praying mantids, and robber flies have not proved to be effective predators of Japanese beetle adults (Klein 1998). Eggs vary slightly in size and shape. It has been recovered in Minnesota since 2004 with parasitism rates of adult beetles estimated at ~10% (Luhman 2008); however, it was not recovered in Michigan in 2000 and may not be established there (Cappaert and Smitley 2002). University of Nebraska - Lincoln, Lincoln, NE. In the Midwestern United States, Japanese beetle has not historically been an economically important pest. Loughrin, J. H., D. A. Potter, and T. R. Hamilton-Kemp. UN PIC & U.S. Pic-nominated pesticides list, Letters in support of September 2018 Department of Justice action on chlorpyrifos, Biological control of the Japanese beetle, Integrating control of the Japanese beetle - a historical review, Natural resistance to Japanese beetle among Malus taxa: role of endogenous foliar phenolics, Proceedings of the Southern Nursery Research Conference, Residual effects of imidacloprid on Japanese beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) oviposition, egg hatch, and larval viability in turfgrass, Predictability in biological control using entomopathogenic nematodes, Japanese beetle damage to soybeans and corn, Grape cultivar feeding preference of adult Japanese beetles, Feeding damage of Japanese beetle (Col.: Scarabaeidae) on 16 field-grown birch (Betula L.) genotypes, Development and antibiosis of released soybean germplasm lines resistant to Mexican bean beetle (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), Soybean foliage insects in conservation tillage systems: effects of tillage, previous cropping history, and soil insecticide application, Field resistance of two soybean germplasm lines, HC95-15MB and HC95-24MB, against bean leaf beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), western corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), and Japanese beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaidae), Impact of insecticide-manipulated defoliation by Japanese beetle (, National Pesticide Information Center, Oregon State University Extension Services, Notes on the biology of the Japanese beetle, United States Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine: Publication, Japanese beetle adults emerge in southern Iowa. 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