It has also been referred to as “robins' bread” because robins attracted to the seeds will fiercely defend a bush they have claimed as their territory. Fruit. The scientific name of this species is Euonymus europaeus, which is said by some to be derived from 'Euonyme', the mother of the Furies, a reference to the poisonous nature of this tree. Facts. By the Italians it is still called Fusano. Sphaerodiscus Nakai[1], Euonymus /juːˈɒnɪməs/ is a genus of flowering plants in the staff vine family, Celastraceae. It is known for the brilliantly colored foliage and fruits that appear in the autumn. Birds are attracted to the fruit and tend to spread them freely to the point this plant has become weedy and invasive in some areas. It flowers around May/June time when it produces clusters of four white petals and alternate stamens. 26), 111-117. Trees in the standard spindle form treated with renewal pruning served as the control. Only the prun-ing to a slim waist and slimming the tree top improved light penetration to the interior part of the tree canopy, fruit size and color. The tall spindle tree is essentially a 10-foot trunk with small fruiting branches along its length, Robinson said. Apple Systems. Common names vary widely among different species and between different English-speaking countries, but include spindle (or spindle tree), burning-bush, strawberry-bush, wahoo, wintercreeper, or simply euonymus. Euonymus, which is more commonly known as Spindle or Spindle Tree, is a large family of dwarf shrubs, small trees, and creepers which can be deciduous or evergreen.There are 175 species in this family, all of whom are treasured for their attractive foliage, and, in some cases, interesting fruit and seed pods. The yellow-green flowers bloom in May and are not particularly notable. Kalonymus (Beck) Prokh. Euonymus europaeus is a deciduous plant that can be grown as either a large shrub or small tree. However, Euonymus alatus (winged euonymus or burning-bush) is considered an invasive species in the woodlands of the northeastern United States. It is possible to prune it to a single stem, creating a small tree shape. European spindle trees typically have no significant disease or insect problems but can contract anthracnose, crown gall, leaf spot, mildew, twig blight, and scale. Euonymus europaeus, the spindle, European spindle, or common spindle, is a species of flowering plant in the family Celastraceae, native to much of Europe, where it inhabits the edges of forest, hedges and gentle slopes, tending to thrive on nutrient-rich, chalky and salt-poor soils. Identified in winter by: the vivid pink fruits which have bright orange seeds. Suitable for small gardens and containers. Zieslin, N., Pines, N., 1987. Euonymus are popular garden shrubs, grown for their foliage, the deciduous species often exhibiting very bright red autumnal colours, and also for the decorative berries. Modern Apple Training Systems - T. Robinson, Vermont Tree Fruit Growers' Association, February 2006 (PDF) Different Approaches to Tall Spindle Establishment in Apple - R. Perry, cherries.msu.edu; Tall-spindle: how did I get there? Spindle-tree is an European species of euonymus with attractive fall color and interesting seed capsules. Effects on retarding hedgerow-tree growth, induction of flower buds in azaleas and abortion of fruit in Japanese holly. [4] The leaves are opposite (rarely alternate) and simple ovoid, typically 2–15 cm long, and usually with a finely serrated margin. Spindle can reach about 6 metres if it grows freely as a tree or large shrub. The leaves are slightly serrated and grow two to four inches long. The spindle tree is native to most of Europe and is found in all of the UK except Scotland especially in areas with chalky soils. They are mostly native to East Asia, extending to the Himalayas,[4] and they are also distributed in Europe, Australasia, North America, and Madagascar. Initially a pale-colored lobed capsule, as it matures it deepens to a hot pink-red color by autumn. Euonymous europaeus or the Spindle tree is a native deciduous tree that is capable of growing up to heights of six metres and can live as long as one hundred years. The Latin name for Spindle is Fusus, and by some of the old writers this plant is called Fusanum and the Fusoria. Quadripterygium Tardieu Pragmotropa Pierre Often see in hedgerow and helpful to wildlife. Oil produced from this plant is used for soap making. The seed coating is used to create a yellow dye and charcoal obtained from the wood is prized by artists. Spindle-tree. The strong tree framework and canopy architecture averts wind damage and protects the tree thus reducing the fruit drop and bruises. The fruits … This plant is most often known as the European spindle tree, a name that comes from the fact that the stems are hard and at one time were sharpened into weaving spindles. The wood of some species was traditionally used for the making of spindles for spinning wool;[6] this use is the origin of the British English name of the shrubs. Download this stock image: spindle tree; fruit; - XACFX8 from Alamy's library of millions of high resolution stock photos, illustrations and vectors. They are very appealing to bees because they contain lots of nectar. It is a deciduous shrub or small tree. Spindle is a deciduous native tree, and mature trees grow to 9m and can live for more than 100 years. Each tree should yield 10 lbs of fruit by the 4th year. The leaves are opposite (rarely alternate) and simple ovoid, typically 2–15 cm long, and usually with a finely serrated margin. Continue trimming as needed to achieve desired growth pattern. Fruit of the European spindle. The fruit is a pink or white four- or five-valved pod-like berry, which splits open to reveal the fleshy-coated orange or red seeds. Two types of spindle tree are used in landscaping -- European spindle and American spindle -- each of which has brilliant crimson foliage in fall and are simultaneously decked out with bizarre red and orange fruit. Media related to Euonymus at Wikimedia Commons, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Euonymus&oldid=992656564, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 6 December 2020, at 12:25. European spindle trees prefer full sun to partial shade. Although not of conservation concern it is an important to a wide range of insect species including magpie, spindle ermine and scorched carpet moths as well as a range of micro moths and holly … Spindle tree (botanical name: Euonymus) blooms in May with a host of densely packed yellowish white flowers. Learn tips for creating your most beautiful (and bountiful) garden ever. The inconspicuous flowers occur in small groups, and can be green, yellow, pink or maroon in color depending on species. The European spindle tree, Euonymus europaea, is a deciduous UK-native tree that is most identifiable by its clusters of white flowers that appear in early summer, transforming into vivid pink fruits with bright orange seeds by the autumn, also the time when the leaves turn a spectacular shade of crimson. opy; 4. It is native throughout Europe and into the western regions of Asia and has been cultivated in North America where it has thrived to the point of becoming an invasive species in some areas. Bulletin of the Kanagawa Horticultural Experiment Station, (No. Bi-axis Slender spindle Superspindle/vertical axis Tatura trellis or V system Vertical Axis Central leader (older) Pear Systems. Buds and twigs are angular … Vanessa Richins Myers is a seasoned horticulturist, garden writer and educator with 10+ years of experience in the horticulture and gardening space. The strange fruits of the spindle tree should be collected during October when they are pink. Noted for its most dramatic foliage and very ornamental berries, Euonymus planipes (Spindle Tree) is a large, deciduous shrub that is invaluable in the fall and winter garden. Where overcrowding occurs higher up the tree, offending shoots are usually cut back to leave a stub an inch or so long that will give rise to one or more future fruiting shoots, One way of making a fruit tree crop earlier is to tie down its young shoots to below the horizontal. Used in many Indonesian dishes, football fruit is another example of a fruit that you really hope the chef knows what they are doing with, because the large seeds, as well as the leaves of the tree, are … The names “Winged” and “Corktree” are so called because of the wings present on some varieties that develop from the cork cambium, although the reason why these are present is more of a mystery. In you have an acre, you could be producing 4.3 tonnes of fruit by your 4th year! Keep the pyramidal shape by pruning harder if necessary your top laterals. The name "Spindle Tree" comes from the light, yet hard wood being ideal for making wool spinning spindles. European spindle tree is very cold hardy and will grow in USDA zones four through seven. In the spring, prune it back to the desired shape and size, then mulch the base of the plant. Strategies to Improve Early Growth And Yield of Tall Spindle Apple Plantings (2015 Fruit Quarterly v. 23-2); Sunlight, Yield, and Productivity of Apples (2014 Fruit Quarterly v. 22-2); Measuring and Extending the Benefits of Orchard Mechanization in High Density Orchards in Western NY (2015 Fruit Quarterly v. 23-2); Making Apple Trees Friendlier for Mechanized Harvesting (2016 Fruit … The fruit is given three or four as a dose, as a purgative in rural districts; and the decoction, adding some vinegar, is used as a lotion for mange in … The seeds are eaten by frugivorous birds, which digest the fleshy seed coat and disperse the seeds in their droppings. Go to list of cultivars. Climbing spindle-tree is a non-native species with orange fruits that can be dispersed by birds. Usually grown as a large bushy shrub with multiple stems growing from the base, it will grow to as much as 20 feet high and spread nearly as wide. It should be planted in an area of well-drained soil. If a tree form is desired, select the strongest shoot and cut all other shoots to the ground. Slimming the tree top; 5. Spindle is a spreading deciduous shrub or small tree that has good autumn foliage colour and has small yellow flowers followed by red fruits with orange seeds. To achieve this in three years, the central leader is not cut (headed) at planting. This ensures high yield and quality fruit production. Tree Fruit Training Systems by Crop. Stake the single remaining shoot and when it reaches the height at which you want the tree foliage to begin, pinch off all growth below that spot. Twigs are thin and straight. This is a great shrub for adding year round interest to the garden though be aware that all parts of the tree could cause serious discomfort if ingested. In the fall, the leaves turn yellow-green to red-purple. It is suitable for hedging up to about 4 metres tall. The tall spindle system, with tree densities around 1,000 to 1,500 trees per acre, is highly competitive and productive and has potential for mechanical harvesting and pruning. This plant has some cultivated varieties. The inconspicuous flowers occur in small groups, and can be green, yellow, pink or maroon in color depending on species. The stems are smooth and dark green with dark green elliptical leaves. The plant produces greenish-yellow flowers in spring, followed by pinkish-red fruit with orange-red seeds in autumn. Other names include fusoria, fusanum, ananbeam, shemshad rasmi (Iran), while it may have given its nam… It is called spindle in English, because the wood of the small tree is very hard and can be cut to a sharp point; it was used in the past for making wool spindles. The Spindle Tree is a delightful small bushy tree known for its leaves that turn a spectacular red in autumn. It tends to have an irregular crown that becomes more rounded as it matures. Often simply called the spindle tree, it has other common names including European euonymus, prick timber, prickwood, and spindleberry. Just pick them carefully from the tree and store them in paper or cotton bags or in buckets. The bark and twigs are deep green, becoming darker with age, and have light brown, corky markings. It has two forms that have been collected in the region: a liana that climbs on other vegetation by means of aerial roots and an upright or spreading shrub that does not climb. To produce more abundant displays of fruit, it is recommended that this species is planted near another Euonymus europaeus cultivar for cross-pollination. Fully hardy likes sun or semi shade and well-drained moist soils. Single stem, creating a small tree shape suitable for hedging up to about 4 metres tall be dispersed birds. ( 3m ) and simple ovoid, typically 2–15 cm long, and spindleberry it freely! 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